Many problems associated with the development of biofilms in a medical environment, take their origins in their extreme resistance to antibacterial agents: antibiotics and disinfectants.
This increased resistance is related to the living conditions in the biofilm, this agglomerate of microorganisms connected to each other by a matrix, adhering to the surfaces. Heterogeneity, access to nutrients, oxygen, and all other factors affecting this medium alter the physiological properties of microorganisms and induce specific resistance mechanisms that add to known resistance mechanisms.
One of the most common bacteria found in this type of environment in medical facilities is Clostridium difficile.
Clostridium difficile is a bacterium, gram-positive, anaerobic and spore-forming bacilli. This bacterium is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea in adults and is responsible for approximately 95% of cases of pseudomembranous colitis, which may have a life-threatening prognosis.
Since 2003, a clear increase in the incidence of infections in North America has been observed. This growth is linked to the emergence and epidemic spread of Clostridium difficile 027, a hyper-virulent and more resistant strain than the other specimens of its species. This strain was isolated in France after having caused an epidemic in the North Pas-de-Calais and more recently in 2013 in Marseille. The hospital environment is an ecosystem where Clostridium difficile persists despite cleaning and the virulent strains thrive. The continued growth of Clostridium difficile infections, particularly of strain 027, is likely related to the continued use of antibiotics. Infants, people taking antibiotics and people over 65 who are in hospital or nursing homes can be more easily infected with this bacteria.Indeed, antibiotics unbalance the intestinal flora and allow the bacteria to spread. To reduce the risk in health care facilities, hygiene must be a top priority. However, thorough disinfection of the patient's environment can be complex in the presence of this bacterium. Indeed, the spores of Clostridium difficile are resistant to many antiseptics and disinfectants. Cleaning methods that are suitable for the eradication of Clostridium difficile are:
sodium hypochlorite at 5000 ppm
hypochlorous acid at 150 ppm
peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide
UV (for 50 min)
Moist heat at 121 ° C (for 15-30 minutes)
A chlorinated disinfectant is therefore an ally in the fight against Clostridium difficile.Our red solution successfully passed the EN13704 standards with Bacillus subtilis and Clostridium difficile and EN16615 with Clostridium difficile in dirty conditions. And it's not the only bacteria that Cleanea's red solution can remove. To learn more about the certifications acquired by our products click here. Nestled in the biofilm, this bacterium is difficult to eradicate by the only traditional chemical action, the best way is to remove the fuel from the biofilm that is dust, dirt, product residues, which feed the matrix. On a softened water base with a low mineral content, the Cleanea blue solution for cleaning floors, without the presence of surfactants, removes the constituents of the biofilm and allows its elimination. Sources:
Eckert C, Coignard B, Hebert M, Tarnaud C, Tessier C, Lemire A, Burghoffer B, Noel D, Barbut F; ICD-Raisin Working Group. Clinical and microbiological features of Clostridium difficile infections in France: the ICD-RAISIN 2009 national survey. Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses 2013;43(2):67-74
EFICATT - Infections à Clostridium difficile
Kuijper, E. J., Coignard, B. , Tüll, P. , , and , (2006), Emergence of Clostridium difficile‐associated disease in North America and Europe. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 12: 2-18. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2006.01580.x
Lagier, J., Dubourg, G., Cassir, N., Fournier, P., Colson, P., Richet, H., . . . Raoult, D. (2013). Clostridium difficile 027 Emerging Outbreak in Marseille, France. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 34(12), 1339-1341. doi:10.1086/673995
Clostridium difficile : prise en charge, in Swiss-Noso, Volume 2, Numéro 3, Octobre 1995.
Instruction de travail du Service propreté et hygiène : Catalogue de répartition des tâches de nettoyage - Surfaces médicales